Winter Solstice - 2016

Winter or hibernal solstice is an astronomical occurrence marking the shortest day and the longest night of the year. You know this as the December solstice in the Northern Hemisphere and the June Solstice in the Southern Hemisphere (also known as the Winter Solstice).

This happens when the axial tilt of Earth and gyroscopic affects its every day rotation,which means that the two opposite points in the sky to which the Earth's axis of rotation points to its axial precession and changes very slowly making a complete roundabout every twenty six years. As the Earth follows its orbit around the Sun (the polar hemisphere that faces away from the Sun)experiences winter.  In half a year it will then face towards the Sun and experience summer. This is because the two hemispheres face opposite directions along Earth's axis, and so as one polar hemisphere experiences winter, the other experiences summer. The winter solstice is considered by some to mark the end of autumn and the start of winter.

More apparent from high latitude, a hemisphere's winter solstice occurs on the shortest day and longest night of the year which is when the sun's daily maximum elevation in the sky is at its lowest. The winter solstice itself lasts only a moment in time, so other terms are used for the day on which it occurs, such as "midwinter", or the "shortest day". It is often considered the "extreme of winter" Dongzhi in the Chinese calendar. In meteorology, winter in the Northern Hemisphere spans the entire period of December through February. The seasonal consequence of the winter solstice is in the turnaround of the gradual expansion of nights and restriction of days.  The earliest sunset and latest sunrise dates differ from winter solsticehowever, and these depend on latitudedue to the difference in the solar day throughout the year caused by the Earth's elliptical orbit to see earliest and latest sunrise and sunset.

Worldwideinterpretation of the event has varied across cultures, but many have held recognition of rebirth which involves holidays, festivals, gatherings, rituals or other celebrations around that time.

The solstice may have been anextraordinary moment of the annual cycle for some cultures even during the Neolithic times, thesowing of crops and the monitoring of winter reserves of food which many cultural mythologies and customs are derived. This is attested by physical remains in the layouts of late Neolithic and Bronze Age archaeological sites such as Stonehenge in England and Newgrange in Ireland. The main axes of both of these monuments seem to have been carefully aligned on a sight-line pointing to the winter solstice sunrise Newgrange and the winter solstice sunset Stonehenge. It is significant that at Stonehenge the Great Trinitron was erected outwards from the middle of the memorial, i.e. its flat face was bowed towards the midwinter Sun. The winter solstice was hugelysignificant because the people were reasonably dependent on monitoring the progress of the seasons. Starvation was common during the first months of the winter (January to April in the northern hemisphere or July to October in thesouthern hemisphere), also known as "the famine months". In moderate climates, the midwinter festival was the last feast partybefore deep winters began. The majority ofthe cattle were slaughtered so they would not have to be fed during the winter, making  it almost the only time of year when a plentiful supply of fresh meat was available. The majority of wine and beer made during the year was finally fermented and ready for drinking at this time. The attentiveness of the observances were not always on the day commencing at midnight or at dawn, but at the beginning of the pagan day, which in many cultures fell on the previous eve.Since the event was seen as the reversal of the Sun's ebbing presence in the sky, the concept of the birth or renaissance of sun gods have been common and, in cultures which used cyclic calendars based on the winter solstice, the "year as reborn" was celebrated with reference to life-death-rebirth deities or "new beginnings" such as Hogmanay's Redding, a New Year oftraditions. In addition "reversal" is another frequent subject, as in Saturnalia's slave and master reversals.


Rosetta Spacecraft Mission Ends

The Rosetta is a spacecraft built by the European Agency. It was launched on March 2, 2004.  Along with Philae, its Lander performed a detailed study of comet 67P- Churyumov Gerasimenko (67P). During its journey to the comet, it flew by Mars and the asteroids 21 Lutetia and 2867 Steins.

The spacecraft reached the comet on August 6, 2014, and performed a sequence of maneuvers to be captured in its path. While on November 12, its Lander section Philae performed was the first successful landing on a comet, although its battery power was low and ran out two days later. However the communications with Philae were briefly restored in June and July 2015, but due to diminishing solar power, Rosetta's communications module with the Lander was turned off on July 27, 2016. On September 30, 2016 the Rosetta finished its mission by landing on the comet in its Ma'at region.

The probe is named after the Rosetta Stone, a stele of Egyptian source featuring a declaration in three scripts. While the Lander was named after the Philae obelisk, that bears a bilingual Greek and Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription.

The Mission

Rosetta Spacecraft Mission Ends

Rosetta was launched on March 2, 2004, from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana on an Ariane 5 rocket and it successfully landed on Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko on August 6, 2014; which became the primary spacecraft to orbit a comet. There were many missions conducted successful flybys of seven other comets, but this was the one of ESA's Horizon 2000 keystone missions. This spacecraft consisted of the Rosetta orbiter, which featured 12 instruments, and a Philae Lander, with nine added instruments. The Rosetta mission orbited Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko for seventeen months and was designed to complete the most thorough study of a comet ever attempted. This spacecraft was controlled by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC), in Darmstadt, Germany. The planning for the mission of the scientific payload, jointly with the data recovery, calibration, archiving and sharing, was also performed by the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), in Villanueva de la Cañada, near Madrid, Spain. It was estimated that in the decade proceeding of 2014, around 2,000 people assisted in this mission in some capacity.

While in 2007, the Rosetta made a Mars gravity assist (flyby) on its way to Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko, and also performed two asteroid flybys. The craft finished its flyby of asteroid 2867 Steins in September 2008 and 21 Lutetia in July 2010. Later on January 20, 2014, Rosetta was taken out from the 31-month hibernation mode as it approached Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko.

Rosetta's Philae Lander effectively made its first soft landing on a comet nucleus when it touched down on Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko on November 12, 2014. On September 5, 2016, ESA announced that the Lander was exposed by the narrow-angle camera onboard Rosetta as the orbiter made a low, 2.7 km (1.7 mi) to pass over the comet; and the Lander sits on its surface wedged into a dark gap of the comet, clearing up the require of electrical power to set up proper communication with the orbiter.


During the 1986 approach of Halley's Comet, many international space probes were sent to discover the comet, and most prominent amongst them being ESA's Giotto. After these probes came back with valuable scientific information, they became obvious to follow-on and were needed to shed up more light on commentary opus and answer new questions.

The European space Agency and NASA have started cooperatively developing new probes; among them the NASAs project was the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission and was the follow-on Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) mission by the ESA. Both missions were to share the Mariner Mark II spacecraft design, thus minimizing costs. In 1992, after NASA canceled CRAF due to budgetary limitations, ESA decided to develop a CRAF-style project on its own. By 1993 it was evident that the ambitious trial return mission was infeasible with the existing European agency budget, that is the reason the mission was redesigned and subsequently approved by the ESA, with the final journey plan similar to the canceled CRAF duty: an asteroid flyby follow by a comet rendezvous with an in-situ examination, including a Lander. After the spacecraft launch, Gerhard Schwehm was named mission manager; he retired in March 2014.

We will learn more on this blog in our next part. 


12/7 Pearl Harbor Remembrance

Every year December 7 is referred as National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day. This was observed to honor 2403 American people who were killed in Japanese Air attack on DEC 7 1941 on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.

The US Congress On August 23, 1994, nominated Dec 7 of every year referred National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day. On this day the American flag will be flown Half Mast or Half-staff (i.e) the flag will be flying midway between the bottom of the pole and the summit till sunset to honor those people who died in the attack.

National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day

As an honor and respect, American people and government organization flew the flag on their homes and workplaces.

Pearl Harbor Remembrance

Without declaring a war the naval air services of Japan attacked pearl Harbor, this terrifying attack destroyed two battleships USS Arizona and USS Oklahoma and damaged five others and several other naval property losses, 188 aircraft were destroyed and damaged air craft’s numbered 159.

The day after the attack the United States of America declared war on Japan; by this move America has officially entered into World War II joining hand with allied powers.

This year the US will observe the 75th annual year of Pearl Harbor attack, The 75th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor is the right occasion for youngsters to respect and honor the brave sacrifice and commitment of our "Greatest Generation", the suffered incredible sacrifices of civilians military personnel on December 7, 1941, the Like our president Franklin D. Roosevelt said it’s the "date which will live in reputation."

It would push America into World War II, varying Hawaii and America forever and this continues to describe their place in the World. The actions of this date triggered to resolve as a nation, our can-do attitude and resourcefulness and an unmatched commitment to the defense of freedom.

Accepting past events and their penalty can arouse respect for an emotional assurance to peaceful solutions to conflict. How do we help future generation to plan their way in the direction of peace and prosperity? We can learn from the past. A key focus of the remembrance of the 75th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor will be a brighter future in our relationship with Japan and the celebration of 71 years of peace between us.


Yoshinori Ohsumi - Best Brains

The 2016 Nobel Laureate discovered the mechanism of Autophagy, which is a fundamental process for humiliating and recycling cellular components.

Yoshinori Ohsumi is a Biologist from Tokyo Institute of Technology. Yoshinori has been awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discoveries of mechanisms for Autophagy. Autophagy is a process where a cell recycles of its own contents.

The researchers and scientists are aware of Autophagy since the 1960s, but they knew little about how it works. While Ohsumi's revolutionary experiments with baker's yeast in the 1990s gave them the complete picture. The study on Autophagy has become important; as Autophagy can abolish invading intracellular bacteria, whereas disrupted Autophagy is linked to Parkinson's disease, this is type 2 diabetes and like other disorders which may particularly affect the elderly.

History of Autophagy

The word autophagy originates from the Greek words auto which means self and phagein — to eat. Hence, Autophagy means self-eating. This concept came to be known since from the 1960's, when scientists first observed that a cell could destroy its own contents by enclosing it in layers, forming sack-like vesicles that were related to a recycling section, called the lysosome, for degradation. Thus there were difficulties in understanding and studying this phenomenon as very little was known until the series of brilliant experiments of Yoshinori’s came out in the early 1990's. Yoshinori Ohsumi used baker's yeast to classify genes that are essential for Autophagy. He then went on to clarify the fundamental mechanisms of Autophagy in yeast and showed that similar machinery can be used in our cells.

Ohsumi's experiments and discoveries led to a new prototype in everyone’s understanding on how the cell recycles its own contents. While the discovery of Autophagy has opened the path of understanding the fundamentals of Autophagy and its importance with the help of many physiological processes; such adaptation will strive to starvation or response to infection. However, the process of mutating Autophagy genes may cause disease, or the process will involve in quite a few conditions including cancer and neurological disease.

During the period of the 1970's and 1980's the researchers focused on explaining other systems used to degrade proteins, specifically the "proteasome". The other researchers who were also awarded within this field are Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, and Irwin Rose; these researchers were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. The proteasome efficiently degrades proteins slowly, and this mechanism did not tell how the cell will get rid in larger protein complexes and worn-out the organelles. Let us look the process of Autophagy and what were the mechanisms?

About the revolutionary experiment

Yoshinori Ohsumi stayed always active in various do research areas, but when he planned to lead his own lab in 1988, he started focusing on protein degradation methods in the vacuole, an organelle that corresponds to the lysosome in human cells. Through his discovery, he learned that Yeast cells are comparatively easy to study and as a result, they are often used as a model for human cells. These are mainly helpful for the identification of genes that are significant in difficult cellular pathways. However, Ohsumi faced the most important challenge in identifying the yeast cells which are small as their inner structures are not easily eminent in the microscope and hence he was unsure whether Autophagy still exists in this organism. Yoshinori reasoned that if he could reverse the degradation process in the vacuole while the process of Autophagy was active, then Autophagosomes may accumulate within the vacuole and turn out to be visible under the microscope. As a result; he then cultured mutated yeast lacking vacuolar degradation enzymes and simultaneously moved Autophagy by starving the cells. As we all know the result was striking; and in few hours the vacuoles were filled with small vesicles which had not been degraded. These vesicles are Autophagosomes, and Ohsumi's discovery proved that Autophagy exists in yeast cells. But even more significantly, now he had a method to categorize and characterize key genes caught up this process. However, this is a major breakthrough and you can see the results are published in 1992.

How Autophagy genes are discovered

After identifying Autophagy in yeast cells, Ohsumi took advantage of his engineered yeast strain in which Autophagosomes accumulated throughout starvation. This accumulation process should not arise if genes significant for Autophagy were inactivated. He then exposed the yeast cells into a chemical which randomly introduced mutations in many genes, and then he induced Autophagy. Thus, this strategy worked and within a year of his discovery of Autophagy in yeast, Yoshinori identified the first genes necessary for Autophagy.

Why Autophagy is essential mechanism in our cells

Soon after identifying the machinery for Autophagy in yeast, a key question raised; was there any corresponding mechanism to manage this process with the help of any other organisms?

When it became clear that virtually identification of mechanisms operates in our own cells; the research tools required to investigate further on the importance of Autophagy in humans was now available.

We have to thank the great researchers like Ohsumi and others; who helped us to understand how Autophagy controls vital physiological functions of cellular components that need to be degraded and recycled. While Autophagy can quickly provide fuel for energy and building blocks for regeneration of cellular components and it is, therefore, essential for the cellular reaction to starvation and other types of stress. The experiments proved that after infection, Autophagy can get rid of invading intracellular bacteria and viruses; and contributes to embryo progress and cell separation. Cells also use Autophagy to eradicate the damaged proteins and organelles, a quality control method that are serious for counteracting the negative consequences of aging.


Discovery of Earth-like Planet

NASA has announced that the discovery of Kepler 452b, also known as Earth 2.0, is an earth-like planet in our galaxy. Over the years of data gathering from the Kepler space telescope and more analysis and work is there here on Earth; confirmed the scientists. As per them the existence of the distant exoplanet which is going to be the most Earth-like planet to be ever discovered.

Though the planet is too far away to photograph, the advanced NASA technology helps to know more surprising information about this 'New Earth'.

Beginning the conference, John Grunsfeld, who is the associate administrator in Nasa's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, says: Today we are announcing the discovery of an exoplanet which is pretty close cousin of our Earth. It's the closest so far. It's Earth 2.0.

Before the conference, John Grunsfeld, who is the associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission directorate from Washington said that today we are announcing the discovery of an exoplanet which was far as we can tell is a pretty close cousin of earth. It is very close so far, it’s Earth 2.0. A lot about Kepler 452b is very similar to Earth, like from its size, length of its years, and the estimated conditions on its surface.

Years on Kepler 452b are about the same duration as they are on Earth. A year on the recently discovered planet, the time it takes to orbit its star, Kepler 452 lasts for 385 days, which means 20 more days longer than Earth.

The above image helps you understand the different two years on other closer planets to Earth. A year on Venus, now and then the closest planet to the Earth, lasts only 88 Earth-days. A year on Neptune, which was further out in our solar system, is just equal of 185 Earth-years.

Kepler spent billions of years within the best habitable distance of its star. Kepler 452 – is around 1.5 billion years older than our Sun. If a planet is to be very close to its star, then it will also be too hot to host life. But if it is too far away then it can be too cold also.

Kepler has the perfect distance from its star for many billions of years. As per Jon Jenkins, the Kepler data analysis lead at NASA Ames Research Centre, it's possible that it hosts life on its surface, or may have some point in its history.  It may also have active volcanoes and water on its surface.

Kepler 452 may have the right temperature, which allows the liquid water to exist on the surface; as this is essential in supporting the lives.

According to John Coughlin, a researcher from California at the SETI Institute says that Kepler team worked with geologists to find out the make-up of the planet. But, due to its size and age, be more likely to be a rocky planet, it could have a volcanic system under its surface.

The researchers assume that humans could potentially stay alive in Kepler 452b's stronger gravity.

The new planet is somewhat larger than Earth and is also predictable to have twice the gravitational pull of our own planet. Yet, as per the scientists of the Kepler’s team, this doesn't signify that it couldn't support life.

Jon Jenkins says that humans could adapt to the gravity, probably becoming "stockier over many generations."

We see today that people have already used to heavy weights; as we humans are built to do this kind of things. However, the human body has an astounding capability to repair itself.

Plants could potentially flourish there. The Kepler 452 is to some extent larger than our own Sun. The additional light and heat energy that the planet receives from the star not only mean it is slightly heater than Earth, but also it could mean that plant life could thrive there.

How plant photosynthesis produces the air we breathe, it is essential to building blocks of life to have a good chance of living on Kepler 452b.

As per Jon Jenkins speech; the sunshine from Kepler's star is very alike to the sunshine from our own star, and the plants there could be able to produce photosynthesize just the same way we get.

Let should we have a feel a lot like home soon.


Stanford’s Robotic Mermaid

Stanford created "Robotic Mermaid" to help with Deep Sea Exploration Missions.

Remotely Operated Vehicles and Artificial intelligent walk side by side these days. Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are used to conduct undersea tasks, which are considered unsafe for humans, for many years. While, these machines are very useful to tackle projects like oil rigging repairs, vehicles that lack the refinement and agility required to handle delicate missions like monitoring the coral reefs.  The traditional boxy shape also created difficulties for the robots to penetrate the tiny areas without damaging the surrounding flora. Now it’s time for the Stanford universities to grab the appreciations for the latest creature which is the high-end version mermaid robot, named as OceanOne.

The idea behind creating this humanoid robot was conceptualized three years ago by the King Abdullah University of science and Technology (KAUST) researchers in Saudi Arabia. They believe that such robots would help monitor coral reefs and under ocean activities in the Red Sea. To elaborate and bring the vision to life the Associate professor Khaled Salama turned to his colleagues at California’s Stanford University for further help.

Professor Oussama Khatib, and the Director of Stanford’s Robotics Lab along with his team of graduate and undergraduate students were fascinated by the idea of creating an underwater robot and instantly agreed. While it took a few years to get the first prototype of OceanOne, and it was released in April 2016, is everything Salama and his team had hoped for, and more.

OceanOne was about five feet from head to tail, and it has stereoscopic eyes, which helps to allow the pilot to view deep down views into the ocean without entering the ocean. It has the fins which provide ample storage space to fit computers, batteries, and even 8 multi-directional thrusters to help and keep the robot stable in confused waters.

Unlike other traditional ROV’s; the OceanOne’s electronics are waterproofed with oil rather than covering the inside parts with a rigid case. The OceanOne is designed simply to prevent the electronics from buckling under the water pressure and enable the robot mermaid to reach depths of up to 2,000 meters without collapsing.

Smart algorithms enable the humanoid robot to avoid collisions under the water and help from the pilot, even it can use its hands to swim when it is stuck in a tight spot; when it cannot avoid a crash then the robot can alleviate the impact by stretching out its arm. Since it can also communicate with human pilots through hand-gestures, it can also be a useful diving companion when needed.

However, when the waters are very uneven, the robot can turn on the thrusters which are stored in its fin to stabilize itself. Sensors are affixed to the robot’s arms and wrists which will help enable the pilot to touch the undersea objects and determine them clearly on the weight and texture. It was very crucial to decide on the amount of force that is required to lift the object without damaging it. There were additional sensors fixed around the robotic mermaid’s body to keep track on the currents and ocean’s turbulence.

Although, the OceanOne is originally created to monitor the coral reefs, but the first mission was a tad more exciting. In April, the robotic mermaid was first sent to investigate the wreckage of King Louis XIV’s flagship, La Lune, which sank off the coast of France in 1664; but the robotic mermaid did not dissatisfy. Later with the help of Professor Khatib guidance, OceanOne made its way 100-meters beneath the surface of the Mediterranean, and it carefully picked up a preserved grapefruit-sized vase and placed it in the recovery basket.

The OceanOne, however, stood up to all the expectations and high-fived all the archaeologists and engineers who had accompanied it on this significant journey. With the achievement of the first under sea’s mission, it will be all exciting to see what coming in the future.



9/22 — Autumn Equinox Begins

When do the Seasons of the Year Begin?

Here are the times & dates for the four seasons as per Eastern Time.

Seasons of 2016

seasons of 2017

Fall comes year after year, but the arrival of waiting for autumn is still very special for all of us. One day late in the summer, we will feel the subtle crispness in the air. Before you are aware of it, you can see the spice colors of the pumpkin everywhere and on everything.  We all will be wrapped in sweaters and wear boots and seen in shades of orange, after slogging in the hot august, it excites us.

We should thank the autumnal equinox for this exciting shift from the hot and sultry summer to foggy fall. While most of us are aware of when the first day of autumn hits the lands on the calendar, but there is more to the equinox.

What is the Autumnal Equinox?

What is the Autumnal Equinox?

The autumn equinox happens every year on September either on 22nd, 23rd or even sometimes on 24th depending on the calendar. This is considering as the astronomical start of the fall in the Northern Hemisphere and spring in the Southern Hemisphere.

The name equinox comes from Latin aequus (equal) and nox (night) — “equal night”; which means the day and night are about the same duration of time. During this equinox period, the Sun crosses what we call the “celestial equator” from north to south.  During this period, the amount of nighttime and daytime will be roughly equal to each other.

The other definition for autumn equinox is nights of below freezing temperatures are combined with days of temperatures below 70 degrees Fahrenheit.

From here on the temperatures will slowly begin to drop and the days light will start to get shorter than the nights that means the hours of daylight will decline.

Enjoy the Northern Lights

You have a chance to catch and enjoy the northern light in the month of September. As September rolls in you enjoy the autumn equinox and can easily catch the increase of aurora borealis display for those who are located at Northern Hemisphere. As per NASA, the equinoxes are prime time for Northern Lights and you will find more geomagnetic activities to take place in the fall time and spring, than in the summer or winter.

Celebrated Across the World

There are many cultures across the world which host feasts to celebrate the September equinox.

Happy 2016 equinox!!!



The Third Set of Locks project is the most momentous part of the Expansion Program. The main of this expansion is to entail the construction of the two new lock complexes in the Pacific and Atlantic sides of the Panama Canal and to create a wider and third lane of traffic for bigger ships. Each lock compound will have three steps.

The Contract was awarded toThe International Consortium Grupo Unidos por el Canal, S.A. (GUPC).

What was the official time the expansion program began?

Work to expand the Panama Canal has officially begun in September 2007.

The expansion program of Panama Canal has become a significant source of job opportunities for many people who were jobless and are of need. Since the execution of this program, more than 30,000 jobs were created along with the training programs for the professionals in different job fields.

Where will the new locks be located?

One lock will be located on the Pacific side to the southwest of the existing Miraflores Locks. The other lock will be located to the east of the existing Gatun Locks.


How do they work?

While each lock complex has three chambers; and the configuration will be similar for the existing Gatun Locks. However this project has created a new lane with an additional lock on each side, given at a capacity to handle vessels up to forty-nine meters (160 feet) wide, 366 meters (1,200 feet) long and fifteen meters (50 feet) deep, or with a cargo volume of up to 170,000 DWT and 12,000 TEU.

There are sixteen gates that are required for the new locks execution and the total sixteen rolling gates are fixed eight on each new locks complex.

Pacific Access Channel

What is the Pacific Access Channel?

The official work to expand the Panama Canal has begun initially in September2007; with dry-excavation work to create the Pacific Access Channel which will link the Third Set of Locks on the Pacific side towards the Culebra Cut. As per the design, the project consists of four phases such as PAC1, PAC2, PAC3, and PAC4.

The first three dry-excavation phases Pacific Access Channel 1 and Pacific Access Channel 3 have been already been completed and the work calls for the excavation of around 50 million cubic meters of material; till date, the required depth to allow navigation by vessels with deeper draft has already been achieved.

Raising Gatun Lake’s Maximum Operating Level

What does the project of raising Gatun Lake’s maximum operating level entails?

This project consists of the maximum raising level of Gatun Lake from 26.7 – 27.1 meters; with the focus to improve the Canal’s water supply. This expansion program enables the additional water storage capacity for Gatun Lake by nearly 200 plus million cubic meters and allows approximately 1,100 additional transits every year.

The project calls to modify the specific structures in Gatun and Pedro Miguel locks.


NASA’s Juno Reaches Jupiter

Where is the Juno was the question roaming since few months the time it started its travel. Now Juno has reached the destination Jupiter. After almost five years of its journey to the solar system’s largest planet  NASA’s spacecraft Juno finally entered the Jupiter’s orbit during a 35 minute engine burn as per NASA and the final confirmation had completed and was received on Earth at 8.53 p.m. PDT July 4 Monday (11:53 p.m. EDT).


Independence Day is the day we all celebrated what matter the date is, but there is another reason to cheer up the people of NASA and the Americans on Juno reaching the Jupiter.  Juno is at Jupiter says the NASA’s administrator Charlie Bolden. This is the most awaited reason for the NASA to celebrate about their mission which is going boldly where no spacecraft has gone before. With this mission NASA is going to investigate the unknown facts about the Jupiter’s massive radiation belts to look into the deep planet’s interior. While this will also help how Jupiter was born and how the entire solar system was evolved.

Juno Reached Jupiter

The successful confirmation about the orbit insertion was received from Juno tracking data which was monitored at the navigation facility at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory – JPL in Pasadena, California and as well as at the Lockheed Martin Juno operations center in Littleton, Colorado. While the telemetry and the other tracking data details were received by NASA’s Deep Space Network antennas in California, Goldstone and Canberra – Australia.

Scott Bolton, the principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio was all excited about the great mission, the great team and great spacecraft did and expresses him by saying that this is the one time he don’t mind being stuck in a windowless room on a night of July 4th.

How this Happened

While the preplanned events leading up to the orbital insertion engine burn included the changing spacecraft attitude by a point to main engine in the desired direction and then increased the spacecraft’s rotation rate from 2 to 5 revolutions per a minute (RPM) to help stabilize it.

The burn of Juno’s 645-Newton Leros-1b chief engine has begun on time at 8:18 p.m. PDT (11:18 p.m. EDT), declining the spacecraft’s velocity by 1,212 miles per hour and 542 meters per second allowing Juno to be captured in orbit around Jupiter, this happened almost immediately after the burn was completed. Juno turned so that the sun’s rays might once again arrive at the 18,698 individual solar cells to give Juno its energy.

The spacecraft worked perfectly; and Jupiter orbit insertion was a huge step and the most challenging mission plan for NASA which was successful. NASA has clarified that there are some more that need to occur before they can give the science team the mission they are looking for. However the next few months are going to be busy months for both Juno’s mission and science teams who are going to perform the final testing on the subsystems of the spacecraft; final calibration of science instruments and on some science collections.

Juno’s Mission

The main principal of Juno is to understand the origin and progress of Jupiter. Juno will further investigate the existence of a rigid planetary core, map Jupiter's deep magnetic field with the help of its suite of nine science instruments. These instruments help to measure the amount of water and ammonia in the deep atmosphere, and watch the planet's auroras. This mission will also help the NASA to take a giant step forward in understanding how the giant planets form and play the role in putting together the rest of the solar system.

Launching of Juno

The Juno spacecraft was launched on Aug 5, 2011 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.  NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Juno mission. Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver built the spacecraft; Juno is part of NASA's New Frontiers Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the Science Mission Directorate agency. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA.


Scientists discover a new species of Octopod near Hawaii

Scientists spotted a small delicate looking and a "spooky" octopod. It was discovered by the Deep Discoverer in the deep waters off Hawaii, but could this curious creature an entirely a new species.

The scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has spotted this remarkable little octopod which is a semi-transparent white color while gathering the geological samples with a Remote Operated Vehicle — ROV on Necker Ridge in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

The appearance of this species was unlike any published records and the deepest observation ever for this type of octopus, and the class of mollusks, octopuses, squid, and others belong to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration — NOAA.

The obvious new species is an Incirrata octopod lacks fins and cirri which mean finger-like parts linked with suckers on its arms. However, it resembles the common octopus that lives in shallower water.

But, what makes this creature unusual from its family; is that it had suckers in one, rather than two, series on each tentacle and with a very distinctive color: Unlike most cephalopods, it lacks pigment cells.

If you closely see, this resulted in a ghostlike appearance; you can also call it as a Casper, a friendly cartoon ghost.

While it was found at a depth of over 14,000 feet, it appears to be the first Incirrata discovered that far down on the sea floor. This octopod is certainly an unusual species that may not belong to any described genus, as per the agency. The scientists were surprised seeing this unusual species as it was spotted sitting on a flat dusted rock with a light coat of silt.